Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease, mainly involving the lungs, mediastinal and peripheral lymph nodes, liver, eyes, and skin. Cutaneous manifestations of sarcoid are variable and behave as “great imitators” of other cutaneous disorders. Cutaneous lesions are classified as specific and nonspecific forms. A large number of systemic sarcoidosis patients have specific cutaneous lesions, and this may be the presenting feature; isolated skin lesions may also present in some patients. Specific lesions of sarcoid are red-brown or red-violaceous in color, asymptomatic, and usually multiple in number. Different types of lesions may present in the same patient. This clinical appearance is due to the presence of epithelioid cell granulomas in the dermis.
Part of the book: Sarcoidosis and Granulomatosis
Human papillomavirus infections are very common and recurrent. Their presentation varies according to their site of affection. Spontaneous recovery is common in a good number of patients. An ideal wart therapy resolves all or maximum number of warts, is painless, needs only one or a part of a wart treated, needs only minimum number of treatments, leaves no scar, offers lifetime HPV immunity and is easily available for all patients. Various modalities of treatment are available—from some folk and alternative therapies to destructive, antimitotic, virucidal, immunotherapy and combination of therapies. In every modality, the result is significant. Younger individuals with short duration of illness usually have the highest clearance rates for various treatments. Recurrence rate is also high in almost every treatment modality. Immunotherapy has a promising role.
Part of the book: Human Papillomavirus