The synthesis and application of nanoparticles have been actively studied in the modern era as it holds promises for effective and targeted strategies to deliver drugs inside the human body. Nanoparticles (NPs) play a big role in cancer diagnosis and have various advantages over other conventional chemotherapeutic drug delivery systems. But, the application of emerging engineered NPs to heavy toxic metals such as zinc, cobalt, and iron has resulted in a major source of toxicity. The toxicity of nanomaterials is majorly determined by their physical and chemical properties such as size, charge, and surface area. Also, the mechanism of nanotoxicity is majorly via the production of reactive oxygen species that create oxidative stress, thereby activating inflammatory cytokines and the mechanism of DNA damage that ultimately results in the cell death. So, mechanistic study needs to be done on nanomaterials to elucidate the mechanism involved in nanotoxicity and to generate less toxic and efficient nanomaterials.
Part of the book: Biochemical Toxicology