The skeleton plays a vital role in the survival of aquatic invertebrates by separating and protecting them from a changing environment. In most of these organisms, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is the principal constituent of the skeleton, while in others, only a part of the skeleton is calcified, or CaCO3 is integrated into an organic skeleton structure. The average pH of ocean surface waters has increased by 25% in acidity as a result of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which reduces carbonate ions (CO32−) concentration, and saturation states (Ω) of biologically critical CaCO3 minerals like calcite, aragonite, and magnesian calcite (Mg-calcite), the fundamental building blocks for the skeletons of marine invertebrates. In this chapter, we discuss how ocean acidification (OA) affects particular species of benthic calcareous hydroids in order to bridge gaps and understand how these organisms can respond to a growing acidic ocean.
Part of the book: Advances in the Studies of the Benthic Zone