Periodontal diseases are chronic, multifactorial inflammatory diseases that affect more than 10% of the world population. There are two general forms of periodontal diseases including gingivitis (reversible inflammation and confined with gingiva form) and periodontitis (irreversible, destruction form). Several studies have reported that periodontal disease was associated with a decreased antioxidant capacity and elevated oxidative damage within the oral cavity. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) is an important enzymatic antioxidant that protects periodontal tissues against oxidative stress. Hitherto, there is contradictory evidence concerning the relationship between the levels of GSH-Px and the periodontal status. Various studies have demonstrated that GSH-Px levels in different biological fluids increased, decreased, or are unaltered in individuals with periodontal disease. This discrepancy might be explained either by different determination protocols/assays applied among the studies or various dynamic processes of the periodontal disease progression. In this section, GSH-Px levels are summarized in the periodontal health and disease including the presence and absence of systemic disease, medication, wound healing, and smoking.
Part of the book: Glutathione System and Oxidative Stress in Health and Disease
Periodontal disease is a chronic multifactorial inflammatory disease affecting the tooth-supporting apparatus including the gingiva, alveolar bone, and periodontal ligament caused by specific microorganisms. Periodontal diseases are among the most widespread diseases in humans and are a major public health problem due to complications caused by early tooth loss. The immunoinflammatory responses initiated by periodontopathogens to protect the host against periodontal infection cause the release of various proinflammatory and chemotactic cytokines, i.e., chemokines. Chemokines have been implicated in the immunopathogenesis of periodontal disease and are found in gingival tissue, GCF, plasma, and saliva in periodontal disease. This section aims to summarize the data concerning the role of chemokines in periodontal tissue inflammation.
Part of the book: Chemokines Updates