In the 1990s, all the cities were conventional cities because at that time there was no concept of the Internet. In the last decade, the concept of smart city has been spread all over the world with the advancement of Internet, and it puts an impact on both small and large cities. In the present scenario, the urban areas affected by various problems and smart cities are only the solutions. The definition of smart cities depends on the word of “smart,” which means a digital city, intelligent city, and sustainable city. The basic concept of the smart cities is that the city should be “green,” more “accessible,” and more “liveable.” This chapter explores the changes made in the conventional cities to become the smart cities, which helps to improve the lifestyle of city people and reduce waste and pollution.
Part of the book: Smart Cities and Construction Technologies
Sustainable development means the utilization of resources at a rate less than the rate at which they are renewing. In India infrastructure industry is growing rapidly due to globalization and raising awareness. In the present study, challenges faced by countries like India are to sustain the existing expectations with limited resources available. Reinforced Concrete (RC) structure may suffer several types of defects that may jeopardize their service life. This chapter deals with condition assessment and repair of RCC (G+3) building situated at Northern part of the country. There are various techniques available for repair and rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures. From a maintenance point of view, it is essential to take up the strength assessment of an existing structure. So, to find out the reason behind the deterioration of the concrete structures some of the NDT and partially destructive technique are used. The NDT tests conducted during this study are Rebound Hammer, Ultra-sonic Pulse Velocity, Concrete resistivity Meter, Ferro-scanning and Carbonation, etc. This chapter helps to explains, how identified the different parameters of distress building like strength, density, level of corrosion and amount of reinforcement. On basis of these results, apply a repair methodology to revert back the strength parameters of the buildings.