Hydrogen is one of the leading candidates in the search for an alternative to fossil hydrocarbon fuels. The spread of these technologies requires a real-time control of generator performances. Artificial intelligence (AI) and mathematic tools can make smarter the smart grid. The electrochemical modeling can be coupled successfully with artificial intelligent approach, if these models can be quickly computed with a large numerical stability. This chapter shows a methodology to build this kind of modeling work. Thanks to a simplified but physically reasonable model of PEM fuel cell, we will show that the reactant access (oxygen) or water management (a product of the reaction) and the reaction rate can be easily described with low computing time consuming. In addition, the artificial neural network could be trained with a reduced amount of data generated by these cell models.
Part of the book: Thermodynamics and Energy Engineering
The hydrogen production by SOECs coupled with renewable energy sources is a promising route for the sustainability hydrogen economy. Multiphysics computing simulations appear to be the most efficient approaches to analyze the coupled mechanisms of SOEC operation. Using a relevant model, it is possible to predict the electrical behavior of solid oxide electrodes considering the current collector design. The influences of diffusion and grain diameter on cell performances can be investigated through 2D simulations, current–voltage characteristics, and current source distribution through electrodes. The simulation results emphasize that diffusion is linked to a relocation of the reaction away from the interface electrolyte/electrode, in the volume of the cathode. Furthermore, the current collector proves itself to be a great obstacle to gas access, inducing underneath it a shortage of steam. Inducing gradients of grain diameters in both anode and cathode drives the current sources to occur close to the electrode/electrolyte interface, thus decreasing ohmic losses and facilitating gas access. This approach shows the crucial importance of cathode microstructure as this electrode controls the cell response.
Part of the book: Electrodialysis