Metabolic syndrome refers to the coexistence of insulin resistance (IR) with several risk factors, including abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which is usually complicated by cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular diseases. This clustering of risk factors suggests that they are interrelated and not independent of one another and that they share underlying mechanisms, mediators, and pathways. Its prevalence exceeds 40% of those over 40, and it has recently been diagnosed in adolescents and even children. Metabolic syndrome is a pro-inflammatory prothrombotic state with determination of elevated level of cytokines, acute phase reactants, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. A comprehensive definition of metabolic syndrome and its pathogenesis would facilitate research into its causes and disease pathophysiology linking the components of metabolic syndrome with the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The management to mitigate these underlying risk factors constitutes a first-line intervention; dietary therapy of metabolic syndrome includes lifestyle modification, hypocaloric diet, and consumption of functional food. Healthy food quantity and time of consumption help restore the normal metabolic profiles. Hopefully, this will lead to new insights into facilitating epidemiological and clinical studies of pharmacological, lifestyle, and preventive treatment approaches.
Part of the book: Cellular Metabolism and Related Disorders