Microorganisms that compose the oral microbiota maintain complex interactions with each other, especially pathogens related to periodontal disease. It is possible to characterize the etiology of this multifactorial and polymicrobial disease by the accumulation of biofilms formed in the supra- and subgingival environments associated to the immunological response and the susceptibility of the host, being responsible for a large part of the dental loss especially in the adult phase. Periodontal treatment has been carried out mainly by scaling and root planing. This therapy is limited due to the difficult access in some areas of the teeth, impairing the removal of biofilms. So, this chapter will focus on the composition and formation of the biofilm as well as the host’s immune response to periodontopathogenic microorganisms. Additionally, the therapeutic challenges and the treatments that are currently being studied in order to eliminate this biofilm, such as antimicrobial phototherapy, will be discussed.
Part of the book: Bacterial Biofilms