Medicinal plants continue to be used in various cultures of the world as safe therapeutic agents against various issues including pain and inflammation which underlie almost every disease process. In Ghanaian traditional medicine, various parts of several plants have been used alone or in combination of therapies for the treatment of various painful inflammatory conditions. In this chapter, the anti-inflammatory and analgesic (antinociceptive) properties of selected medicinal plants from Ghana are reviewed. Evidence of pharmacological activities of crude extracts and fractions in in-vitro and in-vivo models, bioactive anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive compounds isolated as well as possible mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive action are discussed.
Part of the book: Medicinal Plants
Parasitic infections including schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminthiasis are the most commonly encountered Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) in the world. These diseases remain a major public health concern affecting millions of people especially those living in poor regions where access to effective conventional health care is a challenge. Interventions to control these infections in endemic areas have not been successful due to the high cost of drugs, limited availability as well as inequity of access to preventive chemotherapies. Another problem is the development resistance to the limited number of recommended medications due to their intensive use in both human and live-stock. There is an increasing awareness of the potential of natural products as chemotherapeutic agents to combat parasitic infections. Natural products may offer an unlimited source of chemically diverse drug molecules which may be safe, efficient, less toxic, less expensive and readily available for use especially in low-income countries. The Ghanaian flora provides such a ready source for new therapeutic interventions for the local population. Several researches have provided evidence of the anti-parasitic activity of Ghanaian medicinal plants. This chapter provides a review with special focus on medicinal plants collected from Ghana with anthelmintic and anti-schistosomal activity. Evidence of pharmacological activities of crude extracts, fractions and bioactive phytoconstituents as well as possible mechanisms of action where investigated are discussed.
Part of the book: Natural Medicinal Plants