Biofilm formation in clinical settings is an increasingly important issue particularly due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, as it resulted in increased mortality, which poses a considerable financial burden on healthcare systems. The bacterial biofilms are quite resistant to the routine antimicrobial-based therapies; therefore, the novel strategies are desired in addition to the conventional antibiotics for the effective control of infections caused by biofilm-forming microbes. So far, the approaches being proposed to control the biofilm formation in clinical practice settings include the use of biofilm inhibitors and the use of modified biomaterials for the development of medical devices to thwart the formation of biofilms. In this chapter, we have focused on the latest developments in the anti-biofilm strategies through the interruption of the quorum-sensing system, which is crucial for biofilm formation and have summarized the various classes of antibacterial compounds for the control of biofilm formation. This agrees with the recent approaches suggested by the National Institute of Health (NIH) that advocates the use of combinational therapies based on the conventional methods and complementary treatment to explore the potential utility and safety concerns of the natural products. The studies regarding these emerging strategies could possibly lead to the establishment of better therapeutic alternates compared to conventional treatments.
Part of the book: Bacterial Biofilms
Almond (Prunus dulcis), a stone fruit belonging to a family Rosaceae (rose) is broadly cultivated for ornament and fruit. Within this genus, the almond is very much associated with the peach, and these two fruits share the same subgenus the Amygdalus. About 430 species are spread all through the northern temperate regions of the world. The Mediterranean climate region of the Middle East like Turkey and Pakistan eastward to Syria is native to the almond and its related species. Almond is one of the ancient fruit trees known to the Asian as well as European regions with the most primitive proof of cultivation dating about 2000 B.C. Prunus dulcis (Almond) is a nutrient-loaded nut crop. Almond possesses a great genetic diversity due to the genetically controlled self-incompatibility system which can be estimated by a morphological characteristic including molecular markers and isoenzymes with a wide range of marker techniques. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) involving RFLP or SNP are the most commonly used molecular techniques among the DNA-based molecular symbols. Particular agronomic characters, e.g. kernel bitterness or self-compatibility can also be traced by these molecular markers. The direct association between the level of diversity and the basis of the germplasm cannot be understood by the studies of genetic diversity. Genetic diversity cannot be seriously lost by self-compatibility in almonds. The breeding, conservation, and cultivation of wild-growing almonds may similarly advantageous after the genetic diversity research studies (especially those applying molecular markers).
Part of the book: Prunus
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine issue described by unpredictable menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries (PCO). The commonness of PCOS changes relying upon which measures are utilized to conclude yet is just about as high as 15–20% when the European culture for human propagation and embryology/American culture for regenerative medication rules are utilized. Clinical signs incorporated grown-ups incorporate sort 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Insulin opposition influences half 70% of ladies with PCOS prompting a few comorbidities including metabolic condition, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose narrow-mindedness, and diabetes. Studies show that ladies with PCOS are bound to have expanded coronary corridor calcium scores and expanded carotid intima-media thickness. Psychological wellness problems including despondency, uneasiness, bipolar turmoil, and voraciously consuming food issues additionally happen all the more habitually in ladies with PCOS. Weight reduction works on feminine abnormalities, indications of androgen abundance, and barrenness the board of clinical appearances of PCOS incorporates oral contraceptives for feminine inconsistencies and hirsutism. Spironolactone and finasteride are utilized to treat indications of androgen overabundance.
Part of the book: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome