The present chapter highlights the kinetic studies for the sonochemical synthesis of peracetic acid (PAA) in a batch reactor. The effect of different operating parameters including acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide molar ratio, temperature, catalyst loading, effect of ultrasound, were studied using Amberlite IR-120H as a catalyst. The deactivation of the Amberlite IR-120H catalyst has also been studied. The experimental data were further utilized for the estimation of intrinsic reaction rate constants and equilibrium constants. From the experimental results; the optimized PAA concentration was observed for 471 mg/cm3 catalyst loading at 40°C with acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide molar ratio equals to 1:1 in the presence of ultrasound. Results also revealed that the reaction rate was found to be significantly enhanced in the presence of ultrasound, which can be attributed to the enhanced mixing and in-situ formation of H2O2. The use of ultrasound drastically reduces the overall reaction time to 60 min, which is very less compared to 30 h as reported for conventional batch reactor utilizing H2O2 only.
Part of the book: Sonochemical Reactions
The recent advanced electronic appliances demand special high power devices with lightweight, flexible, inexpensive, and environment friendly in nature. In addition, for many industrial and automotive applications, we need energy storage systems that can store energy in a short time and deliver an intense pulse of energy for long duration. Till date the Li-ion battery is the only choice for fulfilling all our energy storage demands. However, the high cost, limited availability and non-environmental nature of electrodes and electrolyte material of Li-ion battery limits its applicability. Hence, the world demands an alternative replacement for the Li-ion battery. In this regard, the supercapacitor is one of the most emerging and potential energy storage devices. The electrode plays an important role in supercapacitors. The nickel and cobalt based oxide, hydroxides, and their composites with conducting polymer are promising and highly appreciated electrode materials for supercapacitors. This chapter covers the recent advances in supercapacitors supported by nickel, cobalt and conducting polymer based materials and their applications predominantly described in the recent literature. Recent advances are reviewed including new methods of synthesis, nanostructuring, and self-assembly using surfactant and modifiers. This chapter also covered the applications of supercapacitors in powering the light weight, flexible and wearable electronics.
Part of the book: Supercapacitors for the Next Generation