Andrology is the medical specialty dealing with men’s health and reproductive system, including the genital, hormonal, reproductive, sexual, as well as psychological aspects, from birth to adulthood. Regular andrological checkups are essential both to reveal possible problems and to receive thorough advice and information so as to ensure that sexual and reproductive functions are well preserved. Estimates report that about one in three males suffers from andrological diseases, their rates varying according to the age: 27–30% of pediatric male subjects have reproductive and/or sexual conditions. In adulthood, 40% of men are affected by andrological diseases, in particular infertility and sexual problems. We studied medical literature about infertility, its prevention, and its treatment; our outcomes were to evaluate the role of research to prevent infertility especially in pediatric and adolescent age. The analysis of the data shows that in absolute numbers, the conditions directly associated with infertility are less studied than the treatment with medically assisted procreation. This research is intended as a warning to the countries worldwide: all those involved in the pediatric treatment area should be stimulated to act toward this goal, and each country should bear the responsibility of promoting and financing andrological screening campaigns.
Part of the book: Male Reproductive Health