During the last 15 years, cochlear implantation became available as a method of treatment for different types of hearing impairment. Leading, specialized centers have now introduced the analysis of the nonsurgical factors that could contribute to improve rates of hearing preservation in preoperative period, during surgery, or in postoperative period in patients who suffer from partial deafness. One of the approaches is using pharmacotherapy (glucocorticoids) as a factor that may improve hearing functions. Preservation of hearing in patients who suffered from partial deafness and underwent cochlear implantation by using two different regimes of corticosteroid therapy was the aim of the study carried out by the World Hearing Center (WHC). Forty-six patients were enrolled in the trial and divided into three subgroups. Hearing preservation (HP) was evaluated using pure tone audiometry (PTA) (11 frequencies ranging from 125 to 8000 Hz). The impact of administrated substances was evaluated by pure tone audiometry during six different periods: before cochlear implant surgery, during activation of audio processor, and 1, 6, 9, and 12 months after activation of audio processor in comparison with control group. According to hearing preservation (HP) classification, patients from the second group, to whom combined glucocorticoid therapy was administrated, achieved the best HP results. The complete hearing preservation index was observed in the highest percentage of patients from the second subgroup. The dispersion of measured values was lesser than in other subgroups. According to the results, administration of glucocorticoids (dexamethasone and prednisone or dexamethasone only) to the patients, who suffered from partial deafness and underwent cochlear implantation surgery, may be important in stabilization of hearing thresholds and in protection of hearing.
Part of the book: The Human Auditory System
Due to the pandemic of COVID-19, a few new drugs and vaccines were officially approved by the EMA (European Medical Agency) and FDA (Food and Drug Administration) for prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this study is to analyze and highlight their potential audio-vestibular side effects as an ototoxic adverse reaction. The chapter was written by the review of the available literature in the scientific databases such as PubMed, ResearchGate, Scopus, and ScienceDirect, and in summaries of product characteristics as an official source of information. There were 39 publications and 15 summaries of product characteristics (as other sources of data), which were also used in this analysis. Adverse events could be permanent or disappear over time. Following treatment for COVID-19, the most frequent adverse audio-vestibular reactions reported in clinical trials and publications in the area of audiology and otorhinolaryngology were dizziness, blurry vision with dizziness, nasopharyngitis, dysgeusia, and tinnitus. As far as vaccines are concerned, dizziness as an ototoxic effect was uncommon and occurs only in hypersensitive people who experience anaphylactic shock. However, there is still a need to monitor ototoxic side effects because of potential interactions with other ototoxic drugs.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Audiological and Vestibular Research