Mycotoxins are chemically diverse and capable of inducing a wide diversity of acute and chronic symptoms, ranging from feed refusal to rapid death. Accurate detection and monitoring of mycotoxins is an essential component of the prevention, diagnosis, and remediation of mycotoxin-related issues in livestock and human food. Current trends in food analysis are focusing on the application of fast, simple procedure needed, and low-cost biosensor technologies that can detect with high sensitivity and selectivity different compounds associated with food safety. This chapter discussed the recent analytical methods-based biosensor technology for quantification of mycotoxins in food products. Mainly focus on the biosensor technology based on the immobilization of antibodies onto various nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, graphite, carbon nanotubes, and quantum dots. The nanomaterials are able to be functionalized with various biomolecules such as enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids, DNA/RNA aptamers, bio- or artificial receptors that make them suitable for detection of various substances such as food toxins, bacteria, and other compounds important in food analysis. All the nanomaterials provide an effective platform for achieving high sensitivity that is similar and, in some cases, even better than conventional analytical methods. We believe that future trends will be emphasized on improving biosensor properties toward practical application in the food industry.
Part of the book: Mycotoxins and Food Safety
The usage of carbamate pesticides in agriculture is increasing year by year. Carbamate pesticides are thioesters and esters, which are derived from aminocarboxylic acid. Carbamates are commonly utilized to improve agricultural production and protect humans and animals from disease. They were also used to control and prevent agricultural pests. However, carbamate can be highly toxic if not applied properly. Therefore, carbamate pesticides need to be monitored in fruits and vegetables. Sensitive and selective detection of carbamate pesticides using nanotechnology helps overcome the drawback of conventional methods of detecting carbamates. Nowadays, the demand for rapid, highly sensitive, and selective pesticide detection techniques is expanding to facilitate detection without complicated equipment. Due to this, this chapter focuses on nanotechnology and current detection methods for detecting residual carbamate pesticides in fruits and vegetables more precisely and faster.
Part of the book: Pesticides