Hydrocarbon-based fuels which are gasoline, diesel, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) have been generally used in the diesel and gasoline engines as a fuel. In this study, hydrocarbon-based fuels such as alkanes (paraffins), naphthenes (cycloparaffins), alkenes (olefins), alkynes (acetylenes), and aromatics (benzene derivatives) have been classified. Their molecular structure and properties have been comprehensively explained. In addition to this, some of the important fuel properties of the commonly used fossil-based fuels such as gasoline and diesel in the internal combustion engine have been evaluated. Thus, hydrocarbon derivative fuels which are diesel, gasoline, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) have been investigated as an internal combustion engine fuel. Their physical and chemical properties were explained and compared to each other. Octane number and cetane number substantially affect the fuel ignition delay period and self-ignition temperature properties. Therefore, the gasoline and diesel engine running is dominantly affected by the octane and cetane numbers, respectively. As a result, fossil-based fuel’s physical and chemical properties, advantages, and disadvantages have been comprehensively explained and compared to each other. The fuels, which are commonly used in the diesel and gasoline engine, have been investigated, and their important properties have been revealed.
Part of the book: Diesel and Gasoline Engines