Hydrocarbon-based fuels which are gasoline, diesel, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) have been generally used in the diesel and gasoline engines as a fuel. In this study, hydrocarbon-based fuels such as alkanes (paraffins), naphthenes (cycloparaffins), alkenes (olefins), alkynes (acetylenes), and aromatics (benzene derivatives) have been classified. Their molecular structure and properties have been comprehensively explained. In addition to this, some of the important fuel properties of the commonly used fossil-based fuels such as gasoline and diesel in the internal combustion engine have been evaluated. Thus, hydrocarbon derivative fuels which are diesel, gasoline, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) have been investigated as an internal combustion engine fuel. Their physical and chemical properties were explained and compared to each other. Octane number and cetane number substantially affect the fuel ignition delay period and self-ignition temperature properties. Therefore, the gasoline and diesel engine running is dominantly affected by the octane and cetane numbers, respectively. As a result, fossil-based fuel’s physical and chemical properties, advantages, and disadvantages have been comprehensively explained and compared to each other. The fuels, which are commonly used in the diesel and gasoline engine, have been investigated, and their important properties have been revealed.
Part of the book: Diesel and Gasoline Engines
Forests have been an important bioenergy source for mankind through the long ages, and they will continue as biomass feedstock sources in the future. This study aims to investigate Turkey’s forest source, biomass resource, fuel wood, and forest residue potential to discover the bioenergy potential of Turkey. How to convert this potential to energy was evaluated in terms of applications and products. Thus, the most common biomass conversion methods such as thermal processes, pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion, and biological processes, fermentation, anaerobic digestion, and biophotolysis processes, have been explained as biomass energy conversion methods. Besides, the products of biomass are explained by its energy application fields. Overall, the bioenergy potential of Turkey’s forest sources and biomass energy conversion methods will be overviewed by this study. Thus, this study will be attracted attention to forests’ biomass source the effects on economic, ecological, and socio-economic respects.
Part of the book: Renewable Energy