Involving more commonly the premature (less than 37 weeks of gestational age) infants, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome is an important clinical syndrome responsible for a high rate of mortality and morbidity. The main progress in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) management is attributable to prescription of surfactant for fastening pulmonary maturation. Respiratory protection, such as mechanical ventilation and nasal continuous positive airway pressure, and surfactant are building blocks of disease treatment. In this chapter, we are going to have a rapid review on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatments of RDS.
Part of the book: Update on Critical Issues on Infant and Neonatal Care
Human breast milk (HBM) not only is a source of nutrition for infants but also contains a variety of biologically active components and bacterial species. These molecules and bacteria guide both intestinal microbiota and infantile immune system. Recently published studies have found several vital roles for gut microbiota including effects on the individual’s personality, decreased predisposition to the diseases, and a variety of other health-related consequences such as possible therapeutic effects or preventing role. In this chapter the components of human breast milk and its effect on shaping the human gut microbiota have been reviewed.
Part of the book: Infant Feeding
The prevalence of Congenital central nervous system (CNS) anomalies, including those of the brain and spinal cord, is 3 to 6% in stillbirth and 0.14 to 0.16% in live births. Holoprosencephaly, spina bifida, anencephaly, and encephalocele are major neural tube defects (NTD) encountered in clinical practice. Proper management and diagnosis of these conditions mandate a good understanding of their etiology and classification. Research is being conducted to investigate the etiopathogenesis and treatment of these anomalies. In this chapter, we have reviewed the clinical and pathological aspects of the major NTDs and the latest principles of their management.
Part of the book: Congenital Anomalies in Newborn Infants