The life expectancy and quality of life of infants with congenital heart disease have increased in the last 30 years with significant advances in technological facilities, treatment methods, and surgeries. GER is a condition that can be seen in infants with CHD, which needs to be well followed up and to be differentiated between physiological and nonphysiological reflux. GER is a physiological condition that is common in infants with CHD and usually resolves spontaneously in the first 6–12 months of life. If the baby has adequate weight gain and nutrition status and there is no abnormal restlessness, the baby is considered to be uncomplicated GER. GERD is a pathological clinical entity that is accompanied by insufficient weight gain, esophagitis, and persistent respiratory system findings. When gastroesophageal reflux disease is considered, the first thing to be done is to complete the detailed anamnesis and physical examination of the infant. The reflux status of the infants can be examined with the surveys that were prepared for GERD and followed up for 1–2 months. If necessary, diagnostic methods such as esophageal pH monitoring and radiological and endoscopic examinations can be used. Conservative approaches such as thickening of formulas and thickening of formulas and positional feeding are the the first treatment approaches for reflux.
Part of the book: Differential Diagnosis of Chest Pain
Congenital anomalies present with significant financial, social, and moral issues and questions to the family and society and are difficult to rehabilitate. In utero exposure to teratogenic agents and infection are the two most important causes of nongenetic acquired anomalies presenting at birth. Teratogens such as drugs, adverse maternal conditions, and toxins are environmental factors that cause permanent structural or functional malformations or death of the embryo or fetus. Teratogens may cause significant congenital anomalies if encountered during the organogenesis period of 3–8 weeks of fetal life, which is the stage of tissues and organs formation, whereas minor morphological and functional disorders may occur with exposure during the fetal period of first 2 weeks. TORCH group infections (toxoplasmosis, others, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes) are the most serious infectious diseases during pregnancy due to the severity of possible embryo-fetal lesions. With expanding scientific knowledge and clinical experience about the association of these toxins and infections with significant, at times crippling congenital anomalies, the avoidance of exposure to pregnant mothers has become the most important part of their prevention and management.
Part of the book: Congenital Anomalies in Newborn Infants