Chromium is a versatile metal with various industrial applications and biological activities. However, as a transition metal, this element forms several species, i.e. oxidation states of −4 to +6, with different degrees of toxicities that affect ecosystems and organisms including human beings. The skin is the outermost organ that usually interacts directly with chromium species in nature. These contact and interaction induce the formation of several acute and chronic negative effects including contact dermatitis, skin cancer, allergy, etc. In this chapter, toxicity and biological activity of several chromium species, such as chromium zero-valent, trivalent, hexavalent, will be reviewed to obtain better comprehension in chromium toxicity. Sources and routes of exposure, toxicity and possible treatment, and biological activity on the skin are arranged and explained systematically.
Part of the book: Trace Metals in the Environment
The human skin is pivotal for protecting the body from various stresses and diseases, regulating several physiological aspects, and sensing any signal changes around the environment. To work and function optimally, the skin should be protected and cared regularly by using some treatments. Chalcone, as a privileged structure, exhibits wide and unique bioactivities related to several skin disorders such as in preventing and treating pigmentation disorders (melasma and vitiligo), cutaneous leishmaniasis, rashes (acne vulgaris, seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis), and rosacea. In this chapter, the role of chalcone derivatives in treating several skin disorders as mentioned above is discussed to provide a brief and comprehensive perspective regarding the role of chalcone in dermatology including in vitro, preclinical, and clinical assays.
Part of the book: Beauty
Monoglyceride is a part of a lipid group compound. As a derivative of triglycerides, monoglycerides could be produced from renewable resources like fat or vegetable oils. Structurally, monoglyceride has lipophilic and hydrophilic properties in its molecule. Lipophilic properties could be donated by an acyl group from fatty acid and hydrophilic properties from two hydroxyl residues. Therefore, it was referred to as an organic amphiphilic compound. Monoglycerides have potency as antifungal agents. Based on its chemical structure, monoglyceride allows to bind to lipid bilayer and other components on the cell membrane of fungal microorganism and damage it. In this chapter, we will describe the structure and classification, physical and chemical properties, as well as reaction path synthesis of monoglyceride from vegetable oils and mechanism of action of monoglyceride as antifungal agents.
Part of the book: Apolipoproteins, Triglycerides and Cholesterol