Lipoprotein has important physiologic functions within the human body. Many enzymes, enzyme activators, and protein parts, such as apolipoproteins and specific hepatic and extrahepatic receptors, are involved in their metabolism. Renal failure is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One of the main mechanisms underlying this increased cardiovascular risk is dyslipidemia. Abnormal lipoprotein profiles are generally a combination of abnormalities of all fractions. Uremic lipoprotein profile includes increased triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, small dense LDL particles, increased lipoprotein (a), and decreased HDL. Enhanced oxidative stress and uremic environment can strongly modify plasma lipoproteins, changing their interactions with biological functions and especially cardiovascular physiology. This profound lipoprotein disorder has led to the formulation of an accelerated atherogenesis hypothesis and has been commonly linked with their metabolic alteration associated with uremia.
Part of the book: Cellular Metabolism and Related Disorders