Anxiety is one of the most common psychopathologies in the general population that often begin early in life; however, research on this disorder during early developmental stages has been poorly explored compared to adults. A better understanding of the anxiety disorder through childhood is essential to develop more effective treatments. This chapter provides a general overview of the usefulness of animal models of childhood anxiety and its neurobiological bases to discuss how the studies on animals meet the several criteria of validity to discover pathophysiological mechanisms of human disorders and new treatments for these conditions. The research methodology for this chapter consisted in using a thesaurus system such as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms of the National Library of Medicine to find original articles in databases as PubMed or Web of Science about preclinical findings related to the neuropharmacology of anxiety before adulthood. The contribution of this chapter is to provide data from preclinical studies which are encouraged to a better comprehension of anxiety at young age.
Part of the book: Behavioral Pharmacology
Public health in Mexico was on alert since the World Health Organization declared a pandemic of COVID-19. This disease represents a challenge not only for the health system but also for the education system, which implement emerging measures such as online education. In Mexico online education has several limitations associated with computer and internet access, which affect the academic achievement of the students. Additionally, the main measures against the pandemic are social isolation, but this measure can generate stress and affect the academic achievement and mental health of the population. The present review was based on Mexican scientific and journalistic sources, and a thesaurus system such as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms to find original articles to social isolation, mental health, and academic achievement. The contribution of this chapter is to describe the effects that social isolation has caused on mental health and scholar challenges in the Mexican student population.
Part of the book: Health and Academic Achievement