Cytogenetic abnormalities are frequently reported in the literature describing the presence of chromosomal rearrangements in important cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML); the rate can reach 50–60% of cases of AML. Cytogenetic abnormalities represent an important prognosis factor, their analysis is crucial for AML; cytogenetic study permits to classify prognostic groups and indicate the treatment strategy and helps to improve the outcome of these patients and to increase their chances of cure. Hundreds of uncommon chromosomal aberrations from AML exist. This chapter summarizes chromosomal abnormalities that are common and classifies AML according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classifications from 2008 to 2016; we will discuss briefly gene mutations detected in normal karyotype (NK) AML by cutting-edge next-generation sequencing technology, like FLT3-ITD, nucleophosmin (NPM1), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPA), and other additional mutations.
Part of the book: Chromosomal Abnormalities