With the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and subsequently with the atomic force microscope (AFM), the human being was able to enter in the nanoscale world. At first, these devices were only used for imaging samples, but with a small modification of its electronics, they can be used for a precise and controlled manipulation of the scanning probe, creating different types of nanolithographed motifs. The development of this type of lithography has allowed the manufacture of nanometric-scale structures that have led spectacular advances in the field of nanotechnology. In this book chapter, we present the most innovative and reliable probe nanolithography techniques. All of them are based on the spatial confinement of a chemical reaction within a nanometric size region of the sample surface. In that way, 2D or even 3D nanostructures can be fabricated. The full potential of probe nanolithography techniques is demonstrated by showing a range of applications such as the controlled deposition of molecules with high precision or nanotransistors that can be used as sensors for biorecognition processes.
Part of the book: Emerging Micro