Phase transformation in crystalline solid is an important factor that designs the microstructure and plays a great role in alloy development. Iron has an allotropic form, and this unique metallurgical property leads to phase transformation. Addition of micro-alloying elements enhances the phase transformation scenarios in steels. Phase transformation due to the addition of micro-alloying elements, together with exceptional precipitation hardening capabilities, substantially improves mechanical properties of steels of different grades. Ferrite transforming to other phases reduces the hardenability of steels. Micro-addition of elements forms precipitation in ferrite and austenite, which controls the microstructure and hence the mechanical properties of steels. Besides, interactions between different deformation sequences used in the production of steel and addition of elements as solute or precipitates regulate the microstructure. Ferrite grain refinement depends on the refinement of austenite grain size in one case, and austenite grain size growth can be varied by addition of various elements. Thus, a variety of elements influences phase transformation that leads to significantly modified properties.
Part of the book: Engineering Steels and High Entropy-Alloys