Ammonia is one of the most harmful risks for success of fish and shrimp culture. There is no effective solution for harmlessness of ammonia in traditional aquaculture operations except exchanging water, which would bring negative effects on environment, or fixing expensive equipment. Biofloc technology (BFT) that appeared in recent years supplies a novel solution for this issue without exchanging huge water and fixing equipment. This technology could assimilate ammonia almost in real time with many other supplemental benefits. Because of the very high nutritional value for fish and shrimp, bioflocs, the by-product of BFT, could also be reused as a complemented food in situ or a gradient for feedstuff to replace expensive fishmeal or be processed to pellet diet to feed fish and shrimp directly. However, some aspects with regard to the effective use of biofloc as a food source for fish and shrimp, such as high lipid content, productivity, and palatability, need to be further researched in detail.