The bacterial challenge on the periodontal tissues triggers an inflammatory reaction, driven by pro-inflammatory cytokines, that eventually leads to the periodontal structures’ damage. The pathogenic mechanisms of this inflammatory reaction are complex and are influenced by the type of host-immune response and certain local and systemic factors. These factors can influence periodontal inflammation, through the action of the various pro-inflammatory cytokines. Periodontal disease and certain systemic conditions can have a mutual association, as the pathogenic mechanisms of these diseases can involve similar molecular and cellular elements. The concept of ‘periodontal medicine’ comprises these pathogenic connections, focusing on the key role that periodontal health has on the general homeostasis and well-being.
Part of the book: Cytokines
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disease, with certain evidence of multiple factors involved, but also with the strong autoimmune component, leading to a high potential for disability, through synovial inflammation and joint destruction. Diagnostic methods and management possibilities have recently improved, thus leading to a better outcome, based on the treat to target recommendation. Although biologic agents represent efficient therapeutic agents, in the last few years, the advances in understanding the mediators involved in rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis have provided new targeted therapies, represented by small molecule inhibitors against the Janus kinases that contribute in the signaling pathways of various cytokine receptors.
Part of the book: Rheumatoid Arthritis