Obesity has become a global health issue due to its high prevalence and associated comorbidities including insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity is associated with the expansion of adipose tissues through hypertrophy of mature adipocytes and differentiation of local preadipocytes in a process known as adipogenesis to store excess triacylglycerols (TAGs). Impairment of adipogenesis leads to ectopic fat deposition in skeletal muscles, liver, and kidneys, triggering IR in these tissues and increased risk of T2DM. Many factors contribute to impaired adipogenesis including obesity-associated mild chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and fatty acid signaling. This review summarizes recent literature covering mediators of impaired adipogenesis and underlying molecular pathways.
Part of the book: Adipose Tissue