Malaria driven pathophysiology inimically conjoined to systemic inflammation response cascade in a vicious feed-forward cycle destined to a terrible debilitation or demise of the host. The Plasmodium parasite initiates physiological changes when it is transmitted into the human host by intermediate host and vector. Sporozoites injection elicits immunological and inflammatory response suppression facilitating movement into the blood stream undetected, destined to hepatocyte. Subsequently, hepatocyte invasion culminates in intracellular growth and conversion of the parasites rapturing hepatocytes releasing merozoites into the extrahepatic circulation. Inflammatory and immunological response initiation results in overt malarial disease symptoms. Initially, inflammatory response alleviates and curtails infection. Activation of leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, and phagocytes secretes inflammatory mediators, chemokines, cytokines cytoadhering molecules which accelerate infection patency. Hormonal processes influence disease tolerance without necessarily interfering with parasitemia. Current treatment is anti-parasitic. Phytotherapeutic intervention in malaria is anti-parasitic and anti-disease effects that terminate the vicious cycle and alleviating disease. The phytochemicals, in malarial experimental and clinical work, include asiatic acid, maslinic acid, oleanolic acid, and inflammatory and immunological aberrations evolving in malaria and the effects of phytochemical therapeutics in the alleviation of the disease to enable leverage of future treatment regimens through harnessing existing plants materials is explored.
Part of the book: Parasitology and Microbiology Research
Lipid peroxidation is an end process of cellular injury driven by oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation through several molecular changes. Metabolism-generated reactive oxygen species avidly attack the polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipid cell membranes, initiating a self-propagating chain-reaction. Cell membrane destruction, lipids and the end-products of lipid peroxidation reactions are hostile to the viability of cells, even tissues causing and exacerbating Diabetes Mellitus (DM), neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs), cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Current treatment regimens have untoward side effects in the long-term necessitating phytochemical use as these are part of natural food sources. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms may be over run causing lipid peroxidation to take place. In disease states, oxidative stress may increase with subsequent production of increased free radicals which may over run the antioxidant capacity of the body with resultant oxidative damage on polyunsaturated fatty acids in the cell fluid membranes with cellular and tissue damage. Phytochemicals, have been shown to ameliorate diseases through attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammation, lipid peroxidation, causing tissue regeneration by regulating signaling systems and neuroprotective processes. Involvement of polyphenolic and non-phenolic phytochemical in the attenuation of OS, inflammation and lipid peroxidation remain areas of critical importance in combating DM, CVDA, NDD and RA.
Part of the book: Accenting Lipid Peroxidation