Among many bioinks used for extrusion 3D bioprinting, the most commonly used bioink is the polysaccharide alginate because of its various cellular-friendly property like gelation. Erratic degradation and cell-binding motifs are not present in alginate which are the limitations of alginate bioinks, which can be improved by blending various low concentrations of natural or artificial polymers. Here in this chapter, we will discuss the various important properties of the alginate which make it as the bioink for almost all bioprinting scaffold designs as well as how improve the cellular properties like its cell-material interaction by blending it with other polymer solutions.
Part of the book: Alginates
The technology of electro-rheological fluids is old, but now it is being used in market at high speed. In the near future, ER fluids may be used for structure design where accuracy, density and power density are primarily the main criteria. For minimizing the costs and maximizing the functionality of the products, like where the viscosity of the fluid is varied to design, solid structure ER fluids are used. Features like fast response and easy interface between electrical and mechanical input–output makes the ER fluid attractive to various technology fields. In this study, ER fluids’ working principle, various low-cost ER fluids working procedures and ER fluid applications in multiple areas are explained.
Part of the book: Extremophilic Microbes and Metabolites