Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is characterized by partial or total bone marrow (BM) destruction resulting in pancytopenia. Most of the acquired AA is the result of autoimmune condition the imbalance between T-regulatory cells (Treg), abnormal cytokines production and cytotoxic T cells activation, leading to the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) death. The first-line treatment is given by HSC transplant, but some patients did not respond to the treatment. Therefore, new technologies need to treat AA nonresponder patients. Studies are in progress to test the efficacy of stem cell-based therapeutic as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which confer low immunogenicity and are reliable allogeneic transplants in refractory severe AA cases. Furthermore, MSCs comprise the BM stromal niche and have an important role in supporting hematopoiesis by secreting regulatory cytokines, providing stimulus to natural BM microenvironment. In addition, MSCs have immunomodulatory property and are candidates for efficient supporting AA therapy.
Part of the book: Human Blood Group Systems and Haemoglobinopathies