Patients with hematological malignancies and recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) as well as solid organ transplant recipients are the groups of patients with the highest risk of invasive fungal infections (IFI). Neutropenia, lymphopenia, chemotherapy of malignancies, radiation therapy, immunosuppressive therapy, administration of glucocorticosteroids, use of central venous catheters, dialysis therapy, liver and kidney failure, and diabetes are diseases and medical conditions which foster invasive fungal infections. In recent years, it has been observed that the most common etiological agents of these infections are yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida, and the second most common is moulds Aspergillus spp. Antifungal agent recommended for therapy of IFI caused by Aspergillus is voriconazole, according to the present guidelines. A combined therapy using voriconazole and caspofungin may not be effective. According to numerous publications, in case of infections caused by strains resistant to voriconazole, a therapeutic success is possible after a switch to the liposomal form of amphotericin B. Due to nonspecific clinical symptoms of IFI caused by Aspergillus spp., histopathological as well as mycological and serological tests, echocardiographic examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computer tomography (CT) may contribute to an early and reliable diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis.
Part of the book: Surgical Recovery