Radiation exposures, both intentional and unintentional, have influence on normal tissue function. Short-term and long-term injuries can occur to all cell systems of both limited and rapid self-renewal potential. Radiation effects can last a lifetime for a patient and can produce complications for all organs and systems. Often invisible at the time of exposure, the fingerprints for cell damage can appear at any timepoint after. Health-care providers will need comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the acute and late effects of radiation exposure and how these interrelate with immediate and long-term care.
Part of the book: Emergency Medicine and Trauma
The discovery of radiation has led to many advances. Guidelines have been created to minimize radiation exposure and treatment management following both unintentional and intentional exposure. The effects of radiation exposure on specific tissues varies. Tragic consequences can result, ranging from severe, acute injury to long- lasting effects that present years after the initial exposure. In this chapter we provide observations that demonstrate the importance of understanding guidelines to minimize radioactive exposure and the expectations and treatment management following exposure. For the safety and well-being of patients, health care professionals need to remain well-informed to minimize the risks of this tool.
Part of the book: Trauma and Emergency Surgery
The use of proton therapy in oncology is not a new idea. The unique physical properties of protons and potential advantages in radiation therapy were initially recognized in the 1940s. Since the first patients were treated in the 1950s, technology and clinical applications have evolved as evidenced by the increasing number of proton therapy centers and patients being treated throughout the world. This chapter will review the history of proton therapy providing a detailed overview of the cyclotron and synchrotron techniques used and how they have advanced with time.
Part of the book: Proton Therapy