In the past decade, hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites (HOIP) have emerged as the exotic materials for the futuristic photovoltaics. The viability of low-temperature, solution-processed manufacturing and a unique blend of electronic and optical properties that has further indicated its goal towards a potential commercialization. This article clearly articulates the emergence of HOIPs and various challenges such as toxicity, hysteresis in these devices. Additionally, this chapter also makes an effort to highlight the advancements made in the perovskite materials for solar cells in the recent years, that include the Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phase that has enabled us reach the power conversion efficiency of 28%. This phase is reportedly a lower dimensional structure than the conventional HOIP and exhibit better stability than the latter. This chapter also focuses to elucidate a few challenges of these RP phased HOIPs such as its synthesis, stoichiometry and process-ability in integrating the organic and inorganic entities.
Part of the book: Perovskite Materials, Devices and Integration