Perovskite material is a material with chemical formula ABX3-type, which exhibits a similar crystal structure of CaTiO3. In this material, A and B are metal cations with ionic valences combined to +6, e.g., (Li+:Nb5+; Ba2+:Ti4+; Sr2+:Mn4+; La3+:Fe3+) and X is an electronegative anion with ionic valence (−2), such as O2−, S2−, etc. The properties of a perovskite material strongly depend on the synthesis route of materials. The perovskite materials may be oxides (ABO3:CaMnO3), halides (ABX3:X = Cl, Br, I), nitrides (ABN3:CaMoN3), sulfides (ABS3:LaYS3), etc. and they may exist in different forms, such as powders, thin films, etc. There are various routes for the synthesis of several perovskites, such as solid phase synthesis, liquid phase synthesis, gas phase synthesis, etc. In this chapter, we discuss various techniques for the synthesis of oxide perovskites in powder form using solid, liquid and gas phase synthesis methods and we also present an overview on the other type of perovskite materials. The X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and optical techniques are used to study the purity of crystallographic phase, morphology and photoluminescence properties of the perovskites. Some applications of the perovskite materials are also discussed.
Part of the book: Perovskite Materials, Devices and Integration