Laser have various periodontal applications including calculus removal (erbium yttrium scandium gallium garnet and erbium yttrium aluminum garnet lasers), decontamination of root and implant surfaces and bio stimulation, incision and ablation, osseous surgery, excision of the soft tissue, and bacterial reduction. This chapter analyzes the most important occasions in which lasers are used in implant and periodontal field practices. There is a strong evidence that laser is used for surgical and nonsurgical periodontal therapies including root bio modification, bacterial decline and decontamination of infected implant surface (in peri-implantitis), and removal of the pocket epithelium. This chapter also highlights the most common disadvantages as well as the advantages of using lasers in periodontal therapy. Waterlase® and Periowave™ systems are recent devices that have further revolutionized the laser technology for its favorable clinical applications; however, the procedural cost with the laser device constitutes an obstacle for its routine application.
Part of the book: Public Health in Developing Countries
It has been established that periodontal diseases are related with the hyperactivity of neutrophils. Reactive oxygen species are produced mainly by neutrophils. In order to maintain the balance with reactive oxygen species, the need for antioxidants is increasing. As for supplements to the conventional periodontal therapy, different antioxidants have been applied in an attempt to provide new possibilities in the periodontal treatment. This chapter focused on recent studies that used different antioxidants as adjuncts to conventional periodontal treatments.
Part of the book: Dental Trauma and Adverse Oral Conditions