Though the idea to use numerical techniques, in order to solve complex three-dimensional problems, has become quite old, computational techniques have gained immense importance in past few decades because of the advent of new generation fast and efficient computers and development of algorithms as parallel computing. Many mathematical problems have no exact solutions. Depending on the complexity of the equations, one needs to use approximate methods. But there are problems, which are beyond our limits, and need support of computers. Ernst Ising published his PhD dissertation in the form of a scientific report in 1925. He used a string of magnetic moments; spin up (+1/2) and spin down (−1/2), and applied periodic boundary conditions to prove that magnetic phase transition does not exist in one dimensions. Lars Onsager, latter, exactly solved the phase transition problem in two dimensions in 1944. It is going to be a century-old problem now. A variety of potential applications of Ising model are possible now a days; classified as Ising universality class models. It has now become possible to solve phase transition problems in complex three-dimensional geometries. Though the area of spinotronics still needs more engagements of computational techniques, its limited use have provided good insights at molecular scale in recent past. This chapter gives a brief introduction to Ising model and its applications, highlighting the developments in the field of magnetism relevant to the area of solid state physics.
Part of the book: Metastable, Spintronics Materials and Mechanics of Deformable Bodies