We present a 59-year-old patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus and massive nephrotic syndrome (anasarca) and biochemical syndrome. The renal biopsy showed a membranous nephropathy (MN). In the blood analysis the patient presented antibodies against M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R) positive at a very high titer. Given the existence of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN), treatment was started with a modified Ponticelli regimen, with no response, requiring periodic ultrafiltration sessions. Rituximab induces nephrotic syndrome (NS) remission in two-thirds of patients with IMN, even after other treatments have failed. We proposed treatment with rituximab based on published evidence. In IMN, the presence of M-type anti-receptor antibodies of A2 phospholipase is considered highly specific to idiopathic forms, but the presence of such antibodies has not been shown to be associated with a particular clinical profile. Assessing circulating anti-PLA2R autoantibodies and proteinuria may help in monitoring disease activity and guiding personalized rituximab therapy in nephrotic patients with IMN.
Part of the book: Glomerulonephritis and Nephrotic Syndrome