Graphene, mother of all carbon materials, has opened up new era of exploration due to its unique properties. Graphene, one-atom thick, exhibits a unique chemical structure and outstanding electronic, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties that made it compelling for various engineering applications. Graphene and graphene-based materials are promising candidates for fabricating state-of-the-art nano-scale sensors and biosensors. They featured with good conductivity and large specific surface area thereby; graphene-based sensors/biosensors performed well with good accuracy, rapidness, high sensitivity and selectivity, low detection limits, and long-term stability. They are ideally used as gas sensors, electrochemical sensors for heavy metal ions, immunosensors and dihydronicotinamide dinucleotide NADH, DNA, catecholamine neurotransmitters, paracetamol, glucose, H2O2, hemoglobin, and myoglobin biosensors. This chapter reviews the applications of graphene in nanotechnology since it came to the field particularly in sensing and biosensing applications. It updates the reader with the scientific progress of the current use of graphene as sensors and biosensors. There is still much room for the scientific research and application development of graphene-based theory, materials, and devices. Despite the vast amount of research already conducted on graphene for various applications, the field is still growing and many questions remain to be answered.
Part of the book: Biosensors
Inorganic perovskite-type oxides are fascinating nanomaterials for wide applications in catalysis, fuel cells, and electrochemical sensing. Perovskites prepared in the nanoscale have recently received extensive attention due to their catalytic nature when used as electrode modifiers. The catalytic activity of these oxides is higher than that of many transition metals compounds and even some precious metal oxides. They exhibit attractive physical and chemical characteristics such as electronic conductivity, electrically active structure, the oxide ions mobility through the crystal lattice, variations on the content of the oxygen, thermal and chemical stability, and supermagnetic, photocatalytic, thermoelectric, and dielectric properties.
Part of the book: Perovskite Materials