A thyroid nodule is a discrete radiologically distinct lesion in the gland parenchyma. These are a common finding in the general population, majority being diagnosed incidentally during neck imaging. The major clinical relevance lies in the fact that 4–6.5% of nodules can be malignant. A thorough clinical evaluation and examination should be followed by serum TSH assessment and ultrasonography for assessment of size, number, imaging characteristics suggestive of malignancy, cervical lymphadenopathy. FNA should be done based on clinical and sonographic characteristics. Further choice of management modality and extent of surgery should be based on cytopathological findings supplemented by molecular testing if available.
Part of the book: Goiter