Part of the book: Prenatal Diagnosis and Screening for Down Syndrome
Human periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease induced by opportunistic Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria at the tooth-supporting apparatus. Within the gingivitis-affected sulcus or periodontal pocket, the resident anaerobic bacteria interact with the host inflammatory reactions leading to a lower oxygen or hypoxic environment. A cellular/tissue oxygen-sensing mechanism and its appropriate regulation are needed to assist tissue adaptation to natural/pathology-induced variations in oxygen availability. In this chapter, we reviewed the biological relevance of hypoxia in periodontal/oral cellular development, epithelial barrier function, periodontal inflammation, and immunity. The role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in pathogen-host cross talk and alveolar bone homeostasis was also discussed. The naturally occurring pathophysiological process of hypoxia appeared to entail fundamental relevance for periodontal defense and regeneration.
Part of the book: Hypoxia and Human Diseases