The methods of enhancing recovery of heavy crude oil explore the importance of enhanced oil recovery and how it has grown in recent years due to the increased needs to locate unconventional resources such as heavy oil, shale, and bitumen. Unfortunately, petroleum engineers and managers are not always well-versed in the enhancement methods available when needed or the most economically viable solution to maximize their reservoir’s productivity. Various recovery methods have been explored to extract heavy oil from deep reservoirs or oil spills. This chapter summarizes the details of methods, namely nanoparticle technology, carbon dioxide injection, thermal recovery and chemical injection, which include the methodology as well as the findings.
Part of the book: Processing of Heavy Crude Oils
Discharging accumulated bilge water from the ship is very important in order to maintain its stability and safety. However, the bilge water that contains contaminants, including waste oils and oily wastes, must be treated prior discharging to the sea. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) has set strict oil discharge limit in order to minimize sea pollution. Thus, an efficient oil–water separator must be installed to separate the oil from the bilge water. This chapter introduces and discusses the working mechanisms, as well as advantages and disadvantages of the available oil–water separation techniques for bilge water treatment, which include gravitational, centrifugation, flotation, coagulation and flocculation, biological processes as well as absorption and adsorption.
Part of the book: Resources of Water