Residual stress analysis based on co-application of acoustic and optical techniques is discussed. Residual stress analysis is a long-standing and challenging problem in many fields of engineering. The fundamental complexity of the problem lies in the fact that a residual stress is locked into the material and therefore hidden inside the specimen. Thus, direct measurement of residual stress in a completely nondestructive fashion is especially difficult. One possible solution is to estimate residual stress from the change in the elastic constant of the material. Residual stress alters the interatomic distance significantly large that the elastic constant is considerably different from the nominal value. From the change in the elastic constant and knowledge of the interatomic potential, it is possible to estimate the residual stress. This acoustic technique (acoustoelasticity) evaluates the elastic modulus of the specimen via acoustic velocity measurement. It is capable of determining the elastic modulus absolutely, but it is a single-point measurement. The optical technique (electronic speckle pattern interferometry, ESPI) yields full-field, two-dimensional strain maps, but it requires an external load to the specimen. Co-application of the two techniques compensates each other’s shortfalls.
Part of the book: New Challenges in Residual Stress Measurements and Evaluation