Carnauba wax, the most important vegetable wax under the economic and extracted from the leaves of the carnauba (Copernicia prunifera (Miller) H. E. Moore), is extensively applied in food due to its physiochemical characteristics with a majority of esters. p-Methoxycinnamic acid diesters obtained from the ceriferous powder of carnauba wax (PCO-C) have been associated with biological actions. However, being a versatile product, many types of research have been carried out seeking to expand the possibilities of applications of this raw material. Furthermore, different experimental studies on the pharmacological activities have also been undertaken in recent years and have tested various biological activities, such as hypolipidemic, hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effects in mice. Therefore, in this book chapter, it is reviewing the development of a process of extraction of 4-hydroxycinnamic acid diesters of carnauba wax powder and investigates their biological actions and physical and chemical characteristics.
Part of the book: Phytochemicals in Human Health
Biomarkers have shown great promise over the past decade the process of drug development more effective and have become an integral part of diagnosis of diseases. Biosensors were integrated with biomarker detection and point-of-care detection for signal amplification, high specificity and sensitivity, rapid response time, low cost, simplicity and multi-analytical testing. In order to detect more sensitively, these particular biomarkers have been explored with the possibility of real-time measurements in order to develop simple and compact systems which can analyze complex specimens. Various biosensors including electrochemical biosensors have recently been developed based on disease-specific biomarkers in the diagnosis of cancer disease. The main objective of the book chapter is to review research with new materials/methods in electrochemical biosensing techniques to detection of breast cancer biomarkers and evaluating latest techniques for detection of important analytes in real samples. In this book chapter, the recent development of electrochemical biosensors of breast cancer biomarkers will be reviewed. Furthermore, recent and future trend application of breast cancer biomarkers will be discussed.
Part of the book: Molecular Biotechnology