In this chapter we introduce stoichiometry and nonstoichiometry from crystal structure point of view along with some examples. We also discussed about the importance of nonstoichiometry in the application oriented research work and their use in the technological applications. We further discuss the ways to identify stoichiometry through various methods. We then introduce neutron diffraction and briefly describe how neutrons and X-ray interacts with matter and the difference in their interaction with matter. We then focus upon its (neutron) usability to identify nonstoichiometry by using some examples available in the literatures. High-temperature superconductivity-based research has seen the importance of neutron diffraction and scattering in identifying the structural modification which leads to superconductivity in the compounds.