Depending on the circumstances, the design and construction of tunnels and underground spaces may be very challenging. In the case of an underground project located at a relatively shallow depth in an urban area, the design and construction will probably be more demanding since there is a potential interaction between the underground project and the overlying pre-existing structure(s) that are founded at the ground surface, such as buildings, bridges, etc. This interaction is generally related to the (usually differential) settlements at the ground surface due to the excavation and the consequent distress of the overlying structures. Nevertheless, in areas that are characterized by seismicity, this interaction may be more complicated, since, apart from the aforementioned static interaction, various phenomena of soil dynamics and dynamic interaction may take place, dominating thus the seismic excitation, response, and distress of the overlying structure(s). The current chapter deals with this interesting topic of geotechnical earthquake engineering. After a literature review, some indicative numerical analyses have been performed in order to determine the impact of the main parameters involved. Although the problem is generally complex and multi-parametrical, the numerical results are indicative of the dynamic interaction between the underground project, the ground, and the overlying structure(s).
Part of the book: Tunnel Engineering