As biocompatible and osteo-inductive precursor to biological apatite formation, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) resorbs at the rate that closely coincides with the rate of new bone formation and is more osteo-conductive than its crystalline counterpart. In addition, in the oral environment, ACP intrinsically provides a protracted supply of the remineralizing calcium and phosphate ions needed for regeneration of mineral lost to tooth decay. These features make ACP composites a strong remineralizing tool at the site of caries attack. Our group has been on the forefront of the research on bioactive, remineralizing, polymeric ACP-based dental materials for over two decades. This entry describes methods for filler, polymer, and composite fabrication and a battery of physicochemical and biological tests involved in evaluation of ACP-based restoratives. Also presented is our most recent design of ACP remineralizing composites with added antimicrobial capability that shows promise for extended dental and, potentially, wider biomedical applications.
Part of the book: Contemporary Topics about Phosphorus in Biology and Materials