The widespread utilization of nonaqueous redox flow batteries is hindered by the low performance. Including some kinds of additives in electrolyte is a possible and facile solution. In this chapter, the effects of carbon dioxide gas, EC/DMC, and antimony ions on the electrochemical performance of nonaqueous redox flow batteries are disclosed. The results show that the ohmic resistance of the deep eutectic solvent (DES) electrolyte reduces significantly when adding carbon dioxide gas and EC/DMC, the percentage of reduction increases with the volume percentage of EC/DMC in electrolyte, and the reaction kinetics almost keeps unchanged for carbon dioxide gas and EC/DMC additives. For the additive of antimony ions, the electrochemical reaction kinetics of active redox couple is enhanced, the diffusion coefficient of active ions also increases, and the charge transfer resistance decreases. The antimony ions electrodeposited on the surface of graphite felt contribute a catalytic effect on the electrochemical reaction so as to improve the performance. However, due to the trade-off between the enhanced kinetics and reduced active surface area, the optimum concentration of antimony ions is found to be 15 mM. In addition, the flow battery assembled with negative electrolyte containing antimony ions exhibits 31.2% higher power density than that of pristine DES electrolyte.
Part of the book: Redox