The rise of robotic surgery coupled with the increased detection of small renal masses has led to a marked increase in renal cancer surgery and, in particular, robotic partial nephrectomy. Given the associated learning curves of these procedures and added external pressures such as work-time directives, training programmes have had to adapt and move away from the traditional apprenticeship model. Simulation in surgery has greatly expanded over the past 20 years to fill this divide and is now commonplace for surgical training and fellowship programmes. This chapter explores the different modalities of simulation available in renal cancer surgery including the latest procedural-specific simulation platforms for both radical and partial nephrectomy. Exciting new developments such as 3D printing and patient-specific modelling are addressed as well as the emerging role of artificial intelligence. Finally, the integration of simulation into a comprehensive surgical training programme is explored.
Part of the book: Evolving Trends in Kidney Cancer