Designing a tunnel is always a challenge. For shallow tunnels under cities due to the presence of buildings, bridges, important avenues, antiquities, etc. at the surface and other infrastructures in the vicinity of underground tunnels, parameters like vibrations and ground settlements must be tightly controlled. Urban tunnels are often made in soils with very low values of overburden. Risks of collapse and large deformations at the surface are high; thus negative impact on old buildings are likely to occur if appropriate measures are not taken in advance, when designing and constructing the tunnel. For deep tunnels with high overburden and low rock mass properties, squeezing conditions and excessive loads around the excavation can jeopardize the stability of the tunnel, leading to extensive collapse. The aim of the chapter is to give details on advance computational modelling and analytical methodologies, which can be used in order to design shallow and deep tunnels and to present real case studies from around the world, from very shallow tunnels in India with only 4.5 m overburden to a deep tunnel in Venezuela with extreme squeezing conditions under 1300 m overburden.
Part of the book: Tunnel Engineering