Sepsis and septic shock are life-threatening conditions that remain an enormous burden of morbidity and mortality to millions of patients globally and cause organ dysfunction, leading to death in as many as one in four patients, often even more. Early management and appropriate treatment are essential to improve outcomes and reduce morbidity and mortality. In 2016, the Third International Consensus Definition for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3) defined sepsis as life-threatening organ dysfunction resulting from dysregulated host responses to infection, and defined septic shock as a subset of sepsis in which underlying circulatory, cellular, and metabolic abnormalities are profound enough to substantially increase the risk of mortality. That same year the group also implemented the application of the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score over the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) score. Sepsis in pregnancy remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide, with no current standard definition for severe sepsis for the pregnant or peripartum woman. The prevalence of pediatric septic shock is on the rise and brings with it the consequences of long-term morbidity and also death. Since the advent of programs for early recognition and treatment, mortality has decreased. Even so, globally, many children succumb to septic shock despite evidence-based care and years of research.
Part of the book: Clinical Management of Shock