miRNAs (miRNA) are small RNA molecules that are not to expressed to proteins. Their size is 20–22 nucleotides in length and they are highly conserved molecules among the species. miRNAs are synthesized in the nucleus as a primary miRNA. Primary miRNA is transferred to cytoplasm by Xpo5 protein (exportin-5) and then is processed by Dicer enzyme to a 22-nucleotide-sized long mature miRNA. miRNAs are differentially expressed in different diseases and are released into plasma by normal and tumor tissues during the cell metabolism. Ovarian carcinoma is the deadliest cancer among women. When the disease was diagnosed, the disease usually progressed. Currently, there is no biological marker to detect ovarian carcinoma at an early stage. Furthermore, there is a need for markers that are sensitive to chemotherapy changes and early detection of the disease. Because of this, miRNAs can be detected in plasma and can be used as highly significant biological markers and therapeutic targets for ovarian carcinoma. When the literature of the last 5 years is searched, there are many studies about miRNA and ovarian carcinoma. In this chapter, studies examining the relationship between ovarian carcinoma and miRNA from different angles are summarized under different sections.
Part of the book: Current Trends in Cancer Management
Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women. Breast cancer has a heterogeneous etiology. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of breast cancer. Various genes as proliferation and nuclear factors have been identified in breast cancer. Therefore, the genetic component of patients is important in determining disease behavior, response to anticancer therapeutics, and patient survival. Prognosis of breast cancer is associated with potential metastatic properties of primary breast tumors. Metastasis is the leading cause of death in patients with breast cancer. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying the development of distant metastases to specific regions and has clinical value. Metastasis shows an organ-specific spread pattern and occurs with a series of complex and multistep events associated with each other, such as angiogenesis, invasion, migration-motility, extravasation, and proliferation. Breast cancer often metastasizes to the bone, liver, brain, and lungs. Metastasis may develop years after successful primary treatment. The metastatic process will become clear, as information about molecules and genes associated with metastases increases, and this is extremely important for cancer treatment.
Part of the book: Tumor Progression and Metastasis